This report uses case studies to illustrate the causes, speed and magnitude of environmental change in England over time scales ranging from the distant past to 2003. These case studies place the gradual landscape development and subtle trends in climate-driven environmental change into the context of long-term environmental evolution. Examples were chosen to illustrate environmental change within a naturally evolving landscape due to coastal change, evolution of rivers and ground instability, and also of catastrophic changes caused by the onset and decline of glaciers and volcanic or tectonic events. Floral and faunal changes were treated separately, as they can be affected by all other factors causing environmental change. Where possible, modern and ancient examples were used to illustrate each process. The report notes that the conservation of important geological sites, including SSSIs which include a notified geological interest, is important in preserving a record of the environmental change that has occurred in the past.
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